RZHRG.org - Faculty Publications

Publications -

Selected Publications:

Published and Accepted Research Articles -

·  Stephenson, R., Vwalika, B., Greenberg, L., Ahmed, Y., Vwalika, C., Chomba, E., Tichacek, A., Allen, S. (2011). A Randomized-Control Trial to Promote Long-Term Contraceptive Use Among HIV Sero-Discordant and Concordant Positive Couples in Zambia. Journal of Women's Health, 20(3).


·  Merino, A., Malhotra, R., Morton, M., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Tang, J., Kaslow, R.A. (2011). Impact of a Functional KIR2DS4 Allele on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission among Discordant Zambian Couples. J Infect Dis.


·  Price, M.A., Wallis, C.L., Lakhi, S., Karita, E., Kamali, A., Anzala, O., Sanders, E.J., Bekker, L.G., Twesigye, R., Hunter, E., Kaleebu, P., Kayitenkore, K., Allen, S., Ruzagira, E., Mwangome, M., Mutua, G., Amornkul, P.N., Stevens, G., Pond, S.L., Schaefer, M., Papathanasopoulos, M.A., Stevens, W., Gilmour, J. (2011). Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Individuals with Recent HIV Infection in East and Southern Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 27(1), 5-12.


·  Lynch, R.M., Rong, R., Boliar, S., Sethi, A., Li, B., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Robinson, J.E., Gnanakaran, S., Derdeyn, C.A. (2011). The B cell response is redundant and highly focused on V1V2 during early subtype C infection in a Zambian seroconverter. J Virol, 85(2), 905-15.


·  Crawford, H., Matthews, P.C., Schaefer, M., Carlson, J.M., Leslie, A., Kilembe, W., Allen, S., Ndung'u, T., Heckerman, D., Hunter, E., Goulder, P.J. (2011). The Hypervariable HIV-1 Capsid Protein Residues Comprise HLA-Driven CD8+ T-Cell Escape Mutations and Covarying HLA-Independent Polymorphisms. J Virol, 85(3), 1384-90.


·  Allen, S. (2010). The Bert and Peggy DuPont lecture: "Love, death, and commitment: twenty three years of HIV and genocide prevention in Africa" or "Passionate not equal unhinged". Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc, 121, 221-37. PMCID: 2917146.


·  Tang, J., Malhotra, R., Song, W., Brill, I., Hu, L., Farmer, P.K., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Kaslow, R.A. (2010). Human leukocyte antigens and HIV type 1 viral load in early and chronic infection: predominance of evolving relationships. PLoS One, 5(3), e9629. PMCID: 2835758.


·  Alexander, M., Lynch, R., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Derdeyn, C.A., Hunter, E. (2010). Donor and recipient envs from heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus subtype C transmission pairs require high receptor levels for entry. J Virol, 84(8), 4100-4. PMCID: 2849512.


·  Celum, C., Wald, A., Lingappa, J.R., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Baeten, J.M., Mullins, J.I., Hughes, J.P., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyn, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Stevens, W., Campbell, M.S., Thomas, K.K., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W.L., McElrath, M.J., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L. (2010). Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med, 362(5), 427-39. PMCID: 2838503.


·  Conkling, M., Shutes, E.L., Karita, E., Chomba, E., Tichacek, A., Sinkala, M., Vwalika, B., Iwanowski, M., Allen, S.A. (2010). Couples' voluntary counselling and testing and nevirapine use in antenatal clinics in two African capitals: a prospective cohort study. J Int AIDS Soc, 13, 10. PMCID: 2851580.


·  Jaoko, W., Karita, E., Kayitenkore, K., Omosa-Manyonyi, G., Allen, S., Than, S., Adams, E.M., Graham, B.S., Koup, R.A., Bailer, R.T., Smith, C., Dally, L., Farah, B., Anzala, O., Muvunyi, C.M., Bizimana, J., Tarragona-Fiol, T., Bergin, P.J., Hayes, P., Ho, M., Loughran, K., Komaroff, W., Stevens, G., Thomson, H., Boaz, M.J., Cox, J.H., Schmidt, C., Gilmour, J., Nabel, G.J., Fast, P., Bwayo, J. (2010). Safety and immunogenicity study of Multiclade HIV-1 adenoviral vector vaccine alone or as boost following a multiclade HIV-1 DNA vaccine in Africa. PLoS One, 5(9), e12873. PMCID: 2943475.


·  Khurana, S., Norris, P.J., Busch, M.P., Haynes, B.F., Park, S., Sasono, P., Mlisana, K., Salim, A.K., Hecht, F.M., Mulenga, J., Chomba, E., Hunter, E., Allen, S., Nemo, G., Rodriguez-Chavez, I.R., Margolick, J.B., Golding, H. (2010). HIV-Selectest enzyme immunoassay and rapid test: ability to detect seroconversion following HIV-1 infection. J Clin Microbiol, 48(1), 281-5. PMCID: 2812287.


·  Li, B., Stefano-Cole, K., Kuhrt, D.M., Gordon, S.N., Else, J.G., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Sodora, D.L., Silvestri, G., Derdeyn, C.A. (2010). Nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection of sooty mangabeys is not associated with high levels of autologous neutralizing antibodies. J Virol, 84(12), 6248-53. PMCID: 2876631.


·  Stephenson, R., Grabbe, K., Vwalika, B., Ahmed, Y., Vwalika, C., Haworth, A., Fuller, L., Liu, F., Chomba, E., Allen, S. (2010). The Influence of Informed Consent Content on Study Participants' Contraceptive Knowledge and Concerns. Studies in Family Planning, 41(3), 217-24.


·  Lynch, R.M., Rong, R., Li, B., Shen, T., Honnen, W., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Pinter, A., Gnanakaran, S., Derdeyn, C.A. (2010). Subtype-specific conservation of isoleucine 309 in the envelope V3 domain is linked to immune evasion in subtype C HIV-1 infection. Virology, 404(1), 59-70.


·  Lingappa, J.R., Baeten, J.M., Wald, A., Hughes, J.P., Thomas, K.K., Mujugira, A., Mugo, N., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K.H., de Bruyn, G., Gray, G.E., McIntyre, J.A., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Magaret, A.S., Wang, R.S., Kidoguchi, L., Barnes, L., Ridzon, R., Corey, L., Celum, C. (2010). Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 375(9717), 824-33. PMCID: 2877592.


·  Crawford, H., Lumm, W., Leslie, A., Schaefer, M., Boeras, D., Prado, J.G., Tang, J., Farmer, P., Ndung'u, T., Lakhi, S., Gilmour, J., Goepfert, P., Walker, B.D., Kaslow, R., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Goulder, P.J., Hunter, E. (2009). Evolution of HLA-B*5703 HIV-1 escape mutations in HLA-B*5703-positive individuals and their transmission recipients. J Exp Med, 206(4), 909-21. PMCID: 2715113.


·  Grabbe, K., Stephenson, R., Vwalika, B., Ahmed, Y., Vwalika, C., Chomba, E., Karita, E., Kayitenkore, K., Tichacek, A., Allen, S. (2009). Knowledge, use, and concerns about contraceptive methods among sero-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 18(9), 1449-56. PMCID: 2825682.


·  Haaland, R.E., Hawkins, P.A., Salazar-Gonzalez, J., Johnson, A., Tichacek, A., Karita, E., Manigart, O., Mulenga, J., Keele, B.F., Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H., Allen, S.A., Derdeyn, C.A., Hunter, E. (2009). Inflammatory genital infections mitigate a severe genetic bottleneck in heterosexual transmission of subtype A and C HIV-1. PLoS Pathog, 5(1), e1000274. PMCID: 2621345.


·  Hageman, K.M., Karita, E., Kayitenkore, K., Bayingana, R., Stephenson, R., Conkling, M., Tichacek, A., Mwanayanda, L., Kilembe, W., Haworth, A., Chomba, E., Allen, S.A. (2009). What the better half is thinking: A comparison of men's and women's responses and agreement between spouses regarding reported sexual and reproductive behaviors in Rwanda. J Psych Rsrch Beh Manage, 2009(2), 47-58.


·  Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F., Salazar, M.G., Keele, B.F., Learn, G.H., Giorgi, E.E., Li, H., Decker, J.M., Wang, S., Baalwa, J., Kraus, M.H., Parrish, N.F., Shaw, K.S., Guffey, M.B., Bar, K.J., Davis, K.L., Ochsenbauer-Jambor, C., Kappes, J.C., Saag, M.S., Cohen, M.S., Mulenga, J., Derdeyn, C.A., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Markowitz, M., Hraber, P., Perelson, A.S., Bhattacharya, T., Haynes, B.F., Korber, B.T., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M. (2009). Genetic identity, biological phenotype, and evolutionary pathways of transmitted/founder viruses in acute and early HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med, 206(6), 1273-89. PMCID: 2715054.


·  Karita, E., Ketter, N., Price, M.A., Kayitenkore, K., Kaleebu, P., Nanvubya, A., Anzala, O., Jaoko, W., Mutua, G., Ruzagira, E., Mulenga, J., Sanders, E.J., Mwangome, M., Allen, S., Bwanika, A., Bahemuka, U., Awuondo, K., Omosa, G., Farah, B., Amornkul, P., Birungi, J., Yates, S., Stoll-Johnson, L., Gilmour, J., Stevens, G., Shutes, E., Manigart, O., Hughes, P., Dally, L., Scott, J., Stevens, W., Fast, P., Kamali, A. (2009). CLSI-derived hematology and biochemistry reference intervals for healthy adults in eastern and southern Africa. PLoS One, 4(2), e4401. PMCID: 2632744.


·  Kawashima, Y., Pfafferott, K., Frater, J., Matthews, P., Payne, R., Addo, M., Gatanaga, H., Fujiwara, M., Hachiya, A., Koizumi, H., Kuse, N., Oka, S., Duda, A., Prendergast, A., Crawford, H., Leslie, A., Brumme, Z., Brumme, C., Allen, T., Brander, C., Kaslow, R., Tang, J., Hunter, E., Allen, S., Mulenga, J., Branch, S., Roach, T., John, M., Mallal, S., Ogwu, A., Shapiro, R., Prado, J.G., Fidler, S., Weber, J., Pybus, O.G., Klenerman, P., Ndung'u, T., Phillips, R., Heckerman, D., Harrigan, P.R., Walker, B.D., Takiguchi, M., Goulder, P. (2009). Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I. Nature, 458(7238), 641-5.


·  Lingappa, J.R., Kahle, E., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Magaret, A., Baeten, J., Bukusi, E.A., Cohen, C.R., Katabira, E., Ronald, A., Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Stewart, G.J., Makhema, J., Essex, M., Were, E., Fife, K., Debruyn, G., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Manongi, R., Kapiga, S., Coetzee, D., Allen, S., Inambao, M., Kayitenkore, K., Karita, E., Kanweka, W., Delany, S., Rees, H., Vwalika, B., Coombs, R.W., Morrow, R., Whittington, W., Corey, L., Wald, A., Celum, C. (2009). Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study. PLoS One, 4(4), e5272. PMCID: 2671170.


·  Rong, R., Li, B., Lynch, R.M., Haaland, R.E., Murphy, M.K., Mulenga, J., Allen, S.A., Pinter, A., Shaw, G.M., Hunter, E., Robinson, J.E., Gnanakaran, S., Derdeyn, C.A. (2009). Escape from autologous neutralizing antibodies in acute/early subtype C HIV-1 infection requires multiple pathways. PLoS Pathog, 5(9), e1000594. PMCID: 2741593.


·  Isaacman-Beck, J., Hermann, E.A., Yi, Y., Ratcliffe, S.J., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Derdeyn, C.A., Collman, R.G. (2009). Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: Macrophage tropism, alternative coreceptor use, and the molecular anatomy of CCR5 utilization. J Virol, 83(16), 8208-20. PMCID: 2715751.


·  Williams, D.R., Allen, S., Padian, N. (2008). Project Eban: a giant step forward. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 49 Suppl 1, S1-2.


·  Tang, J., Shao, W., Yoo, Y.J., Brill, I., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Kaslow, R.A. (2008). Human leukocyte antigen class I genotypes in relation to heterosexual HIV type 1 transmission within discordant couples. J Immunol, 181(4), 2626-35. PMCID: 2570252.


·  Stephenson, R., Shutes, E., McKenna, S., Allen, S., Brill, I., Kancheya, N., Zulu, I., Sinkala, M., Tichacek, A., Chomba, E. (2008). The impact of project closure on HIV incidence and mortality in a cohort of couples in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS Care, 20(6), 683-91.


·  Stephenson, R., Mendenhall, E., Muzizi, L., Vwalika, B., Chomba, E., Ahmed, Y., Clark, L., Roth, D., Telfair, J., Haworth, A., Allen, S. (2008). The influence of motivational messages on future planning behaviors among HIV concordant positive and discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS Care, 20(2), 150-60.


·  Stephenson, R., Barker, J., Cramer, R., Hall, M.A., Karita, E., Chomba, E., Vwalika, C., Allen, S. (2008). The demographic profile of sero-discordant couples enrolled in clinical research in Rwanda and Zambia. AIDS Care, 20(3), 395-405.


·  Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F., Bailes, E., Pham, K.T., Salazar, M.G., Guffey, M.B., Keele, B.F., Derdeyn, C.A., Farmer, P., Hunter, E., Allen, S., Manigart, O., Mulenga, J., Anderson, J.A., Swanstrom, R., Haynes, B.F., Athreya, G.S., Korber, B.T., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., Hahn, B.H. (2008). Deciphering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and early envelope diversification by single-genome amplification and sequencing. J Virol, 82(8), 3952-70. PMCID: 2293010.


·  Peters, P.J., Zulu, I., Kancheya, N.G., Lakhi, S., Chomba, E., Vwalika, C., Kim, D.J., Brill, I., Meinzen-Derr, J., Tichacek, A., Allen, S.A. (2008). Modified Kigali combined staging predicts risk of mortality in HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 24(7), 919-24. PMCID: 2928550.


·  Lingappa, J.R., Lambdin, B., Bukusi, E.A., Ngure, K., Kavuma, L., Inambao, M., Kanweka, W., Allen, S., Kiarie, J.N., Makhema, J., Were, E., Manongi, R., Coetzee, D., de Bruyn, G., Delany-Moretlwe, S., Magaret, A., Mugo, N., Mujugira, A., Ndase, P., Celum, C. (2008). Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial. PLoS One, 3(1), e1411. PMCID: 2156103.


·  Kempf, M.C., Allen, S., Zulu, I., Kancheya, N., Stephenson, R., Brill, I., Tichacek, A., Haworth, A., Chomba, E. (2008). Enrollment and retention of HIV discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 47(1), 116-25.


·  Hageman, K.M., Tichacek, A., Allen, S. Couples' Voluntary Counseling and Testing. In: Mayer K, Pizer HF, editors. HIV Prevention: A Comprehensive Approach. San Diego: Academic Press; 2008. p. 240-66.


·  Goepfert, P.A., Lumm, W., Farmer, P., Matthews, P., Prendergast, A., Carlson, J.M., Derdeyn, C.A., Tang, J., Kaslow, R.A., Bansal, A., Yusim, K., Heckerman, D., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Goulder, P.J., Hunter, E. (2008). Transmission of HIV-1 Gag immune escape mutations is associated with reduced viral load in linked recipients. J Exp Med, 205(5), 1009-17. PMCID: 2373834.


·  Dunkle, K.L., Stephenson, R., Karita, E., Chomba, E., Kayitenkore, K., Vwalika, C., Greenberg, L., Allen, S. (2008). New heterosexually transmitted HIV infections in married or cohabiting couples in urban Zambia and Rwanda: an analysis of survey and clinical data. Lancet, 371(9631), 2183-91.


·  Dunkle, K.L., Greenberg, L., Lanterman, A., Stephenson, R., Allen, S. (2008). Source of new infections in generalised HIV epidemics -- Authors' reply. Lancet, 372(9646), 1300-1.


·  Coldiron, M.E., Stephenson, R., Chomba, E., Vwalika, C., Karita, E., Kayitenkore, K., Tichacek, A., Isanhart, L., Allen, S., Haworth, A. (2008). The relationship between alcohol consumption and unprotected sex among known HIV-discordant couples in Rwanda and Zambia. AIDS Behav, 12(4), 594-603.


·  Chomba, E., Allen, S., Kanweka, W., Tichacek, A., Cox, G., Shutes, E., Zulu, I., Kancheya, N., Sinkala, M., Stephenson, R., Haworth, A. (2008). Evolution of couples' voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 47(1), 108-15.


·  Allen, S. (2008). Susan Allen: confronting HIV in Africa. Interview by Hema Bashyam. J Exp Med, 205(5), 1000-1. PMCID: 2373832.


·  Allen, S., Stephenson, R., Weiss, H., Karita, E., Priddy, F., Fuller, L., Declercq, A. (2007). Pregnancy, hormonal contraceptive use, and HIV-related death in Rwanda. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 16(7), 1017-27.


·  Brockman, M.A., Schneidewind, A., Lahaie, M., Schmidt, A., Miura, T., Desouza, I., Ryvkin, F., Derdeyn, C.A., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Mulenga, J., Goepfert, P.A., Walker, B.D., Allen, T.M. (2007). Escape and compensation from early HLA-B57-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte pressure on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag alter capsid interactions with cyclophilin A. J Virol, 81(22), 12608-18. PMCID: 2169025.


·  Rong, R., Gnanakaran, S., Decker, J.M., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Taylor, J., Sfakianos, J.N., Mokili, J.L., Muldoon, M., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., Blackwell, J.L., Korber, B.T., Hunter, E., Derdeyn, C.A. (2007). Unique mutational patterns in the envelope alpha 2 amphipathic helix and acquisition of length in gp120 hypervariable domains are associated with resistance to autologous neutralization of subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol, 81(11), 5658-68. PMCID: 1900276.


·  Rong, R., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Blackwell, J.L., Derdeyn, C.A. (2007). Role of V1V2 and other human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope domains in resistance to autologous neutralization during clade C infection. J Virol, 81(3), 1350-9. PMCID: 1797511.


·  Peters, P.J., Karita, E., Kayitenkore, K., Meinzen-Derr, J., Kim, D.J., Tichacek, A., Allen, S.A. (2007). HIV-infected Rwandan women have a high frequency of long-term survival. AIDS, 21 Suppl 6, S31-7.


·  Mendenhall, E., Muzizi, L., Stephenson, R., Chomba, E., Ahmed, Y., Haworth, A., Allen, S. (2007). Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples. AIDS Care, 19(3), 369-74.


·  Masquelier, C., Servais, J.Y., Rusanganwa, E., Roman, F., Havuga, E., Servais, J., Tuyizere, S., Omes, C., Karasi, J.C., Coruteille, O., Karita, E., Allen, S., Schmit, J.C., Arendt, V. (2007). A novel 24-base pair deletion in the coding region of CCR5 in an African population. AIDS, 21(1), 111-3.


·  Mark, K.E., Meinzen-Derr, J., Stephenson, R., Haworth, A., Ahmed, Y., Duncan, D., Westfall, A., Allen, S. (2007). Contraception among HIV concordant and discordant couples in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 16(8), 1200-10.


·  Allen, S., Karita, E., Chomba, E., Roth, D.L., Telfair, J., Zulu, I., Clark, L., Kancheya, N., Conkling, M., Stephenson, R., Bekan, B., Kimbrell, K., Dunham, S., Henderson, F., Sinkala, M., Carael, M., Haworth, A. (2007). Promotion of couples' voluntary counselling and testing for HIV through influential networks in two African capital cities. BMC Public Health, 7, 349. PMCID: 2241615.


·  Crawford, H., Prado, J.G., Leslie, A., Hue, S., Honeyborne, I., Reddy, S., van der Stok, M., Mncube, Z., Brander, C., Rousseau, C., Mullins, J.I., Kaslow, R., Goepfert, P., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Mulenga, J., Kiepiela, P., Walker, B.D., Goulder, P.J. (2007). Compensatory mutation partially restores fitness and delays reversion of escape mutation within the immunodominant HLA-B*5703-restricted Gag epitope in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol, 81(15), 8346-51. PMCID: 1951305.


·  Karita, E., Price, M., Hunter, E., Chomba, E., Allen, S., Fei, L., Kamali, A., Sanders, E.J., Anzala, O., Katende, M., Ketter, N. (2007). Investigating the utility of the HIV-1 BED capture enzyme immunoassay using cross-sectional and longitudinal seroconverter specimens from Africa. AIDS, 21(4), 403-8.


·  Au, J.T., Kayitenkore, K., Shutes, E., Karita, E., Peters, P.J., Tichacek, A., Allen, S.A. (2006). Access to adequate nutrition is a major potential obstacle to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected individuals in Rwanda. AIDS, 20(16), 2116-8.


·  Bansal, A., Gough, E., Ritter, D., Wilson, C., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Goepfert, P.A. (2006). Group M-based HIV-1 Gag peptides are frequently targeted by T cells in chronically infected US and Zambian patients. AIDS, 20(3), 353-60.


·  Johnson, R.W., Li, B., Sunay, S., Moore, R.H., Mulenga, J., Hunter, E., Allen, S., Blackwell, J.L., Derdeyn, C.A. (2006). Real-time PCR quantitation of subtype C HIV DNA in a Zambian discordant couple cohort. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 22(5), 438-44.


·  Khurana, S., Needham, J., Park, S., Mathieson, B., Busch, M.P., Nemo, G., Nyambi, P., Zolla-Pazner, S., Laal, S., Mulenga, J., Chomba, E., Hunter, E., Allen, S., McIntyre, J., Hewlett, I., Lee, S., Tang, S., Cowan, E., Beyrer, C., Altfeld, M., Yu, X.G., Tounkara, A., Koita, O., Kamali, A., Nguyen, N., Graham, B.S., Todd, D., Mugenyi, P., Anzala, O., Sanders, E., Ketter, N., Fast, P., Golding, H. (2006). Novel approach for differential diagnosis of HIV infections in the face of vaccine-generated antibodies: utility for detection of diverse HIV-1 subtypes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 43(3), 304-12. PMCID: 2365716.


·  Lazaryan, A., Lobashevsky, E., Mulenga, J., Karita, E., Allen, S., Tang, J., Kaslow, R.A. (2006). Human leukocyte antigen B58 supertype and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in native Africans. J Virol, 80(12), 6056-60. PMCID: 1472610.


·  Li, B., Decker, J.M., Johnson, R.W., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Wei, X., Mulenga, J., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., Blackwell, J.L., Derdeyn, C.A. (2006). Evidence for potent autologous neutralizing antibody titers and compact envelopes in early infection with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol, 80(11), 5211-8. PMCID: 1472127.


·  Li, M., Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F., Derdeyn, C.A., Morris, L., Williamson, C., Robinson, J.E., Decker, J.M., Li, Y., Salazar, M.G., Polonis, V.R., Mlisana, K., Karim, S.A., Hong, K., Greene, K.M., Bilska, M., Zhou, J., Allen, S., Chomba, E., Mulenga, J., Vwalika, C., Gao, F., Zhang, M., Korber, B.T., Hunter, E., Hahn, B.H., Montefiori, D.C. (2006). Genetic and neutralization properties of subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 molecular env clones from acute and early heterosexually acquired infections in Southern Africa. J Virol, 80(23), 11776-90. PMCID: 1642599.


·  Song, W., Wilson, C.M., Allen, S., Wang, C., Li, Y., Kaslow, R.A., Tang, J. (2006). Interleukin 18 and human immunodeficiency virus type I infection in adolescents and adults. Clin Exp Immunol, 144(1), 117-24. PMCID: 1809636.


·  Allen, S. (2005). Why is fertility an issue for HIV-infected and at-risk women? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 38 Suppl 1, S1-3.


·  Allen, S. (2005). International data: Fertility regulation and systemic hormones in HIV-infected and at-risk women (conference proceedings). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 38 Suppl 1, S7-8.


·  Decker, J.M., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Wei, X., Wang, S., Levy, D.N., Wang, W., Delaporte, E., Peeters, M., Derdeyn, C.A., Allen, S., Hunter, E., Saag, M.S., Hoxie, J.A., Hahn, B.H., Kwong, P.D., Robinson, J.E., Shaw, G.M. (2005). Antigenic conservation and immunogenicity of the HIV coreceptor binding site. J Exp Med, 201(9), 1407-19. PMCID: 2213183.


·  Gray, C.M., Williamson, C., Bredell, H., Puren, A., Xia, X., Filter, R., Zijenah, L., Cao, H., Morris, L., Vardas, E., Colvin, M., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Musonda, R., Allen, S., Katzenstein, D., Mbizo, M., Kumwenda, N., Taha, T., Karim, S.A., Flores, J., Sheppard, H.W. (2005). Viral dynamics and CD4+ T cell counts in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals from southern Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 21(4), 285-91.


·  Modjarrad, K., Zulu, I., Karita, E., Kancheya, N., Funkhouser, E., Allen, S. (2005). Predictors of HIV serostatus among HIV discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia and female antenatal clinic attendants in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 21(1), 5-12.


·  Tang, J., Penman-Aguilar, A., Lobashevsky, E., Allen, S., Kaslow, R.A. (2004). HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles and haplotypes in Zambian couples and their associations with heterosexual transmission of HIV type 1. J Infect Dis, 189(9), 1696-704.


·  Tang, J., Tang, S., Lobashevsky, E., Zulu, I., Aldrovandi, G., Allen, S., Kaslow, R.A. (2004). HLA allele sharing and HIV type 1 viremia in seroconverting Zambians with known transmitting partners. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 20(1), 19-25.


·  Masemola, A., Mashishi, T., Khoury, G., Mohube, P., Mokgotho, P., Vardas, E., Colvin, M., Zijenah, L., Katzenstein, D., Musonda, R., Allen, S., Kumwenda, N., Taha, T., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Karim, S.A., Sheppard, H.W., Gray, C.M. (2004). Hierarchical targeting of subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins by CD8+ T cells: correlation with viral load. J Virol, 78(7), 3233-43. PMCID: 371059.


·  Fischer, A., Lejczak, C., Lambert, C., Roman, F., Servais, J., Karita, E., Allen, S., Schmit, J.C., Arendt, V. (2004). Is the Vpr R77Q mutation associated with long-term non-progression of HIV infection? AIDS, 18(9), 1346-7.


·  Dorak, M.T., Tang, J., Penman-Aguilar, A., Westfall, A.O., Zulu, I., Lobashevsky, E.S., Kancheya, N.G., Schaen, M.M., Allen, S.A., Kaslow, R.A. (2004). Transmission of HIV-1 and HLA-B allele-sharing within serodiscordant heterosexual Zambian couples. Lancet, 363(9427), 2137-9.


·  Derdeyn, C.A., Decker, J.M., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Mokili, J.L., Muldoon, M., Denham, S.A., Heil, M.L., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., Hahn, B.H., Shaw, G.M., Korber, B.T., Allen, S., Hunter, E. (2004). Envelope-constrained neutralization-sensitive HIV-1 after heterosexual transmission. Science, 303(5666), 2019-22.


·  Masemola, A.M., Mashishi, T.N., Khoury, G., Bredell, H., Paximadis, M., Mathebula, T., Barkhan, D., Puren, A., Vardas, E., Colvin, M., Zijenah, L., Katzenstein, D., Musonda, R., Allen, S., Kumwenda, N., Taha, T., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Karim, S.A., Sheppard, H.W., Gray, C.M. (2004). Novel and promiscuous CTL epitopes in conserved regions of Gag targeted by individuals with early subtype C HIV type 1 infection from southern Africa. J Immunol, 173(7), 4607-17.


·  Gao, F., Li, Y., Decker, J.M., Peyerl, F.W., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Rodenburg, C.M., Chen, Y., Shaw, D.R., Allen, S., Musonda, R., Shaw, G.M., Zajac, A.J., Letvin, N., Hahn, B.H. (2003). Codon usage optimization of HIV type 1 subtype C gag, pol, env, and nef genes: in vitro expression and immune responses in DNA-vaccinated mice. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 19(9), 817-23.


·  Allen, S., Meinzen-Derr, J., Kautzman, M., Zulu, I., Trask, S., Fideli, U., Musonda, R., Kasolo, F., Gao, F., Haworth, A. (2003). Sexual behavior of HIV discordant couples after HIV counseling and testing. AIDS, 17(5), 733-40.


·  Hoesley, C.J., Allen, S.A., Raper, J.L., Musonda, R., Niu, Y., Gao, F., Squires, K.E., Aldrovandi, G.M. (2002). Comparative analysis of commercial assays for the detection and quantification of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma from patients infected with HIV-1 subtype C. Clin Infect Dis, 35(3), 323-5.


·  Roman, F., Karita, E., Monnet, A., Lambert, C., Fontaine, E., Allen, S., Schneider, F., Hemmer, R., Schmit, J.C., Arendt, V. (2002). Rare and new V3 loop variants in HIV-1-positive long-term non-progressors from Rwanda. AIDS, 16(13), 1827-9.


·  Trask, S.A., Derdeyn, C.A., Fideli, U., Chen, Y., Meleth, S., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., Hunter, E., Gao, F., Allen, S., Hahn, B.H. (2002). Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia. J Virol, 76(1), 397-405. PMCID: 135722.


·  Tang, J., Tang, S., Lobashevsky, E., Myracle, A.D., Fideli, U., Aldrovandi, G., Allen, S., Musonda, R., Kaslow, R.A. (2002). Favorable and unfavorable HLA class I alleles and haplotypes in Zambians predominantly infected with clade C human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol, 76(16), 8276-84. PMCID: 155130.


·  Tang, J., Myracle, A.D., Allen, S., Karita, E., Musonda, R., Fultz, P.N., Kaslow, R.A. (2001). Novel alleles at the lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) locus mark extended HLA haplotypes in native Africans. Hum Immunol, 62(3), 269-78.


·  Tang, J., Freedman, D.O., Allen, S., Karita, E., Musonda, R., Braga, C., Margolick, J., Kaslow, R.A. (2001). TAPI polymorphisms in several human ethnic groups: characteristics, evolution, and genotyping strategies. Hum Immunol, 62(3), 256-68.


·  Fideli, U.S., Allen, S.A., Musonda, R., Trask, S., Hahn, B.H., Weiss, H., Mulenga, J., Kasolo, F., Vermund, S.H., Aldrovandi, G.M. (2001). Virologic and immunologic determinants of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 17(10), 901-10. PMCID: 2748905.


·  Tang, J., Freedman, D.O., Allen, S., Karita, E., Musonda, R., Braga, C., Jamieson, B.D., Louie, L., Kaslow, R.A. (2001). Genotyping TAP2 variants in North American Caucasians, Brazilians, and Africans. Genes Immun, 2(1), 32-40.


·  Roth, D.L., Stewart, K.E., Clay, O.J., van Der Straten, A., Karita, E., Allen, S. (2001). Sexual practices of HIV discordant and concordant couples in Rwanda: effects of a testing and counselling programme for men. Int J STD AIDS, 12(3), 181-8.


·  Rodenburg, C.M., Li, Y., Trask, S.A., Chen, Y., Decker, J., Robertson, D.L., Kalish, M.L., Shaw, G.M., Allen, S., Hahn, B.H., Gao, F. (2001). Near full-length clones and reference sequences for subtype C isolates of HIV type 1 from three different continents. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 17(2), 161-8.


·  Tang, J., Naik, E., Costello, C., Karita, E., Rivers, C., Allen, S., Kaslow, R.A. (2000). Characteristics of HLA class I and class II polymorphisms in Rwandan women. Exp Clin Immunogenet, 17(4), 185-98.


·  Bakari, J.P., McKenna, S., Myrick, A., Mwinga, K., Bhat, G.J., Allen, S. (2000). Rapid voluntary testing and counseling for HIV. Acceptability and feasibility in Zambian antenatal care clinics. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 918, 64-76.


·  Tang, J., Costello, C., Keet, I.P., Rivers, C., Leblanc, S., Karita, E., Allen, S., Kaslow, R.A. (1999). HLA class I


·  Tang, J., Rivers, C., Karita, E., Costello, C., Allen, S., Fultz, P.N., Schoenbaum, E.E., Kaslow, R.A. (1999). Allelic variants of human beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) promoter: evolutionary relationships and predictable associations with HIV-1 disease progression. Genes Immun, 1(1), 20-7. homozygosity accelerates disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 15(4), 317-24.


·  Costello, C., Tang, J., Rivers, C., Karita, E., Meizen-Derr, J., Allen, S., Kaslow, R.A. (1999). HLA-B*5703 independently associated with slower HIV-1 disease progression in Rwandan women. AIDS, 13(14), 1990-1.


·  Allen, S., Karita, E., N'Gandu, N., Tichacek, A. The evolution of voluntary testing and counseling as an HIV prevention strategy. In: Gibney L, DiClemente RJ, Vermund SH, editors. Preventing HIV in Developing Countries: Biomedical and Behavioral Approaches. New York: Plenum Press; 1999.


·  Tang, J., Allen, S., Karita, E., Musonda, R., Kaslow, R.A. (1998). New TAP2 polymorphisms in Africans. Tissue Antigens, 51(5), 556-62.


·  van der Straten, A., King, R., Grinstead, O., Vittinghoff, E., Serufilira, A., Allen, S. (1998). Sexual Coercion, Physical Violence, and HIV Infection Among Women in Steady Relationships in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS and Behavior, 2(1), 61-73.


·  Camp, W.L., Allen, S., Alvarez, J.O., Jolly, P.E., Weiss, H.L., Phillips, J.F., Karita, E., Serufilira, A., Vermund, S.H. (1998). Serum retinol and HIV-1 RNA viral load in rapid and slow progressors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol, 18(4), 401-6.


·  McKenna, S.L., Muyinda, G.K., Roth, D., Mwali, M., Ng'andu, N., Myrick, A., Luo, C., Priddy, F.H., Hall, V.M., von Lieven, A.A., Sabatino, J.R., Mark, K., Allen, S.A. (1997). Rapid HIV testing and counseling for voluntary testing centers in Africa. AIDS, 11 Suppl 1, S103-10.


·  Betts, M.R., Krowka, J., Santamaria, C., Balsamo, K., Gao, F., Mulundu, G., Luo, C., N'Gandu, N., Sheppard, H., Hahn, B.H., Allen, S., Frelinger, J.A. (1997). Cross-clade human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in HIV-infected Zambians. J Virol, 71(11), 8908-11. PMCID: 192363.


·  van der Straten, A., King, R., Grinstead, O., Serufilira, A., Allen, S. (1995). Couple communication, sexual coercion and HIV risk reduction in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 9(8), 935-44.


·  Seed, J., Allen, S., Mertens, T., Hudes, E., Serufilira, A., Carael, M., Karita, E., Van de Perre, P., Nsengumuremyi, F. (1995). Male circumcision, sexually transmitted disease, and risk of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol, 8(1), 83-90.


·  Lifson, A.R., Allen, S., Wolf, W., Serufilira, A., Kantarama, G., Lindan, C.P., Hudes, E.S., Nsengumuremyi, F., Taelman, H., Batungwanayo, J. (1995). Classification of HIV infection and disease in women from Rwanda. Evaluation of the World Health Organization HIV staging system and recommended modifications. Ann Intern Med, 122(4), 262-70.


·  King, R., Estey, J., Allen, S., Kegeles, S., Wolf, W., Valentine, C., Serufilira, A. (1995). A family planning intervention to reduce vertical transmission of HIV in Rwanda. AIDS, 9 Suppl 1, S45-51.


·  Kerlikowske, K.M., Katz, M.H., Allen, S., Wolf, W., Hudes, E.S., Karita, E., Serufilira, A., Van de Perre, P. (1994). Beta 2-microglobulin as a predictor of death in HIV-infected women from Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 8(7), 963-9.


·  Taelman, H., Bogaerts, J., Batungwanayo, J., Van de Perre, P., Lucas, S., Allen, S. (1994). Failure of the cryptococcal serum antigen test to detect primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis, 18(1), 119-20.


·  Lartigue, K., Kantarama, G., Sanstad, K.H., Binson, D., Allen, S. (1994) Willingness to participate in efficacy trials of HIV prophylactic vaccines: results of focus groups with HIV-negative Rwandan women.


·  King, R., Fox, E., Twagirakristu, J.B., Karita, E., Allen, S. (1994). Excess morbidity related to HIV infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 88(3), 295.


·  Keogh, P., Allen, S., Almedal, C., Temahagili, B. (1994). The social impact of HIV infection on women in Kigali, Rwanda: a prospective study. Soc Sci Med, 38(8), 1047-53.


·  Batungwanayo, J., Taelman, H., Lucas, S., Bogaerts, J., Alard, D., Kagame, A., Blanche, P., Clerinx, J., van de Perre, P., Allen, S. (1994). Pulmonary disease associated with the human immunodeficiency virus in Kigali, Rwanda. A fiberoptic bronchoscopic study of 111 cases of undetermined etiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 149(6), 1591-6.


·  Batungwanayo, J., Taelman, H., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., Lucas, S., Kagame, A., Clerinx, J., Montane, J., Saraux, A., Muhlberger, F., et al. (1994). Pulmonary cryptococcosis associated with HIV-1 infection in Rwanda: a retrospective study of 37 cases. AIDS, 8(9), 1271-6.


·  Allen, S., Serufilira, A., Gruber, V., Kegeles, S., Van de Perre, P., Carael, M., Coates, T.J. (1993). Pregnancy and contraception use among urban Rwandan women after HIV testing and counseling. Am J Public Health, 83(5), 705-10. PMCID: 1694707.


·  Batungwanayo, J., Taelman, H., Allen, S., Bogaerts, J., Kagame, A., Van de Perre, P. (1993). Pleural effusion, tuberculosis and HIV-1 infection in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 7(1), 73-9.


·  King, R., Frey, S., Beisha, R., Van de Perre, P., Karita, E., Allen, S. (1993). The presence or absence of gp120/gp160 bands on indeterminate western blots: predictive value for HIV seroconversion. AIDS, 7(3), 437-8.


·  Moore, P.S., Allen, S., Sowell, A.L., Van de Perre, P., Huff, D.L., Serufilira, A., Nsengumuremyi, F., Hulley, S.B. (1993). Role of nutritional status and weight loss in HIV seroconversion among Rwandan women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 6(6), 611-6.King, R., Allen, S., Serufilira, A., Karita, E., Van de Perre, P. (1993). Voluntary confidential HIV testing for couples in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 7(10), 1393-4.


·  Taelman, H., Batungwanayo, J., Clerinx, J., Kagame, A., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., Van de Perre, P. (1992). Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med, 327(16), 1171; author reply -2.


·  Allen, S., Batungwanayo, J., Kerlikowske, K., Lifson, A.R., Wolf, W., Granich, R., Taelman, H., Van de Perre, P., Serufilira, A., Bogaerts, J., et al. (1992). Two-year incidence of tuberculosis in cohorts of HIV-infected and uninfected urban Rwandan women. Am Rev Respir Dis, 146(6), 1439-44.


·  Allen, S., Tice, J., Van de Perre, P., Serufilira, A., Hudes, E., Nsengumuremyi, F., Bogaerts, J., Lindan, C., Hulley, S. (1992). Effect of serotesting with counselling on condom use and seroconversion among HIV discordant couples in Africa. BMJ, 304(6842), 1605-9. PMCID: 1881972


·  Lindan, C.P., Allen, S., Serufilira, A., Lifson, A.R., Van de Perre, P., Chen-Rundle, A., Batungwanayo, J., Nsengumuremyi, F., Bogaerts, J., Hulley, S. (1992). Predictors of mortality among HIV-infected women in Kigali, Rwanda. Ann Intern Med, 116(4), 320-8.


·  Batungwanayo, J., Taelman, H., Dhote, R., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., Van de Perre, P. (1992). Pulmonary tuberculosis in Kigali, Rwanda. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on clinical and radiographic presentation. Am Rev Respir Dis, 146(1), 53-6.


·  Allen, S., Serufilira, A., Bogaerts, J., Van de Perre, P., Nsengumuremyi, F., Lindan, C., Carael, M., Wolf, W., Coates, T., Hulley, S. (1992). Confidential HIV testing and condom promotion in Africa. Impact on HIV and gonorrhea rates. JAMA, 268(23), 3338-43.


·  Taelman, H., Batungwanayo, J., Clerinx, J., Kagame, A., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., Van de Perre, P. (1991). Risk of tuberculosis among women of childbearing age with HIV infection in Zaire. Am Rev Respir Dis, 144(5), 1219-20.


·  Lindan, C., Allen, S., Carael, M., Nsengumuremyi, F., Van de Perre, P., Serufilira, A., Tice, J., Black, D., Coates, T., Hulley, S. (1991). Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived risk of AIDS among urban Rwandan women: relationship to HIV infection and behavior change. AIDS, 5(8), 993-1002.


·  King, R., Van de Perre, P., Allen, S., Serufilira, A., Homsy, J. (1991). Predictive value of indeterminate HIV western blot. Lancet, 338(8777), 1278.


·  Allen, S., Van de perre, P., Serufilira, A., Lepage, P., Carael, M., DeClercq, A., Tice, J., Black, D., Nsengumuremyi, F., Ziegler, J., et al. (1991). Human immunodeficiency virus and malaria in a representative sample of childbearing women in Kigali, Rwanda. J Infect Dis, 164(1), 67-71.


·  Allen, S., Lindan, C., Serufilira, A., Van de Perre, P., Rundle, A.C., Nsengumuremyi, F., Carael, M., Schwalbe, J., Hulley, S. (1991). Human immunodeficiency virus infection in urban Rwanda. Demographic and behavioral correlates in a representative sample of childbearing women. JAMA, 266(12), 1657-63.


·  Taelman, H., Batungwanayo, J., Clerinx, J., Kagame, A., Bogaerts, J., Allen, S., van de Perre, P. (1991). Tuberculosis and HIV infection. BMJ, 302(6786), 1206. PMCID: 1669904.


·  Bogaerts, J., Verhaegen, J., Martinez Tello, W., Allen, S., Verbist, L., Van Dyck, E., Piot, P. (1990). Characterization, in vitro susceptibility, and clinical significance of CDC group HB-5 from Rwanda. J Clin Microbiol, 28(10), 2196-9. PMCID: 268146.


·  Lepage, P., van de Perre, P., Dabis, F., Commenges, D., Orbinski, J., Hitimana, D.G., Bazubagira, A., van Goethem, C., Allen, S., Butzler, J.P., et al. (1989). Evaluation and simplification of the World Health Organization clinical case definition for paediatric AIDS. AIDS, 3(4), 221-5.


·  Carael, M., Van de Perre, P.H., Lepage, P.H., Allen, S., Nsengumuremyi, F., Van Goethem, C., Ntahorutaba, M., Nzaramba, D., Clumeck, N. (1988). Human immunodeficiency virus transmission among heterosexual couples in Central Africa. AIDS, 2(3), 201-5.


·  Van de Perre, P., Nzaramba, D., Allen, S., Riggin, C.H., Sprecher-Goldberger, S., Butzler, J.P. (1988). Comparison of six serological assays for human immunodeficiency virus antibody detection in developing countries. J Clin Microbiol, 26(3), 552-6. PMCID: 266330.


·  Keene, W.E., Petitt, M.G., Allen, S., McKerrow, J.H. (1986). The major neutral proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica.


·  Schwartz, N.D., So, Y.T., Hollander, H., Allen, S., Fye, K.H. (1986). Eosinophilic vasculitis leading to amaurosis fugax in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Intern Med, 146(10), 2059-60. J Exp Med, 163(3), 536-49. PMCID: 2188059.


DID YOU KNOW...


• The majority of new HIV/AIDS infections in Africa are acquired from a spouse or long-term partner, so couples represent the largest risk group.

• CVCT has been proven to decrease the transmission of HIV/AIDS by more than two-thirds among those couples who do not share the same HIV status.

• Providing couples with CVCT would prevent new infections at a cost of about $300 per couple.